Health

Common Eye Disorders and Surgeries

Cataract

We have natural lens in our eye that helps us see by refracting light waves. In cataracts, this lens becomes cloudy, making it difficult for people to see. It is similar to seeing through a cloudy car windshield or a dusty transparent glass.  Things might look blurry and less vibrant with cataracts.

While cataracts can occur in anyone, old people are at a bigger risk to develop a cloudy lens. It can also affect children. In fact, some infants have cataracts since birth.

Symptoms of cataract include:

  • Blurry vision
  • Light sensitivity
  • Colour blindness and difficulty in seeing vibrant colours
  • Double vision

Cataract surgeries involve a procedure in which the natural lens is removed with an intraocular lens (IOL). It is among the most successful eye surgeries.

Dry Eyes

Dry eyes — is a condition in which eyes become dry due to lack of fluidity in the eye. Eyes become dry when they don’t have sufficient lubrication to keep the surface of the eye moist.

It causes inflammation, redness, discomfort and pressure in the eyes. The fluid in the eye is called a tear. The tear also prevents the eyes from certain infections.

Aged people are at a higher risk of developing dry eye syndrome as the tear-producing ability of older people reduces with age.

Lack of tears between eyelids and eye causes pain, itch and inflammation.

Eye tears are made up of mucus, oil and water. Sometimes, the eyes are unable to create the right balance of mucus, water and oil. Due to lack of oil, tears start to evaporate quickly. As a result, fewer tears are left on the eye surface which is not enough to keep it lubricated.

Retinal Detachment

Retinal detachment is an eye disorder in which the sensitive layer behind the eyeball — retina moves away from the layer beneath. Since retina directly connects to the brain and converts light signals into visuals (what we see) — when it’s detached from its original position, it causes floaters and blurriness in the vision. Some people also experience dark curtains in the periphery of vision.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic Retinopathy — which is a serious eye disease in diabetic patients, occurs when people poorly manage their blood sugar levels. It harms the blood vessels in the retina, a thin layer at the back of the eye. While in the early stages, patients of diabetic retinopathy are asymptomatic — the signs can get severe when the disorder reaches its advanced stages. Floaters and blurred eyesight is found to be the most common symptom in these cases.

Most common eye treatments

LASIK Surgery

LASIK is a common eye surgery that is performed to treat hyperopia (farsightedness), astigmatism and myopia (near-sightedness). LASIK surgery does not involve pain and needs only minutes to be done (for both eyes). People opt for LASIK surgery when they are tired of wearing eyeglasses and lenses. Not everyone is eligible for this surgery. Your doctor will inspect the health of your eye to know whether you qualify for a LASIK or not.

YAG Laser Capsulotomy

YAG laser capsulotomy is used to treat posterior capsule opacity — a complication that occurs in cataract surgery patients. When the natural lens is replaced with IOL, people get their normal vision. However, in a few cases, blurriness and haziness starts occurring in the eyesight.

To remove the blurriness and haziness from the lens, a laser beam is passed through the cloudy capsule beyond the intraocular lens (IOL). The laser vaporises the cloud and clears the lens. The surgery is a reliable and safe procedure.

Vitrectomy

First performed in the 1970s —vitrectomy surgery is performed by eye surgeons to treat many different serious eye diseases. Eye doctors perform this surgery when they require better access to the back of the eye. The vitreous fluid is taken out and replaced with another fluid.

The eye specialist removes the deceased tissue and puts the detached retina back to the lower layer (in its original position). While the person being operated may feel slight discomfort, vitrectomy is secure and does not involve any pain. However, your eyes may get swollen or red after receiving the surgery.