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Risk Factors for Covid-19 Infection


COVID 19 stands for Corona Virus Disease 2019. Coronavirus is a large family of viruses that are common all over the world. They can cause respiratory illness in humans and animals. It started in China in late 2019, especially in Wuhan. Over the past two decades, the spread of the coronavirus has become a global concern, with an increase in acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and more recently in 2012 with Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS). ۔

COVID 19 is a disease caused by a stork cov2 which doctors call a respiratory infection. It can affect the upper respiratory tract, e.g. Bones, nose, and throat or lower respiratory tract, e.g. Windpipe, and lungs. Serious cases can lead to serious respiratory illnesses and even pneumonia.

The WHO declared the outbreak of Covid-19 a global emergency. On March 11, 2020, the WHO declared it a global epidemic.

Risk Factors –

The following are risk factors that make people more likely to get a covid 19 infection.

65 years of age or older –

Covidien infection due to a weakened immune system. They are more likely to have some related diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, chronic kidney disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Also, the duration of the disease is more severe in them which results in more deaths. However, with appropriate precautions, its transmission to the elderly population can be reduced.

Chronic lung disease and asthma –

Hospital data show that respiratory patients are more likely to have severe complications. The same is true of other chronic lung diseases.

Serious heart condition –

Covid-19 directly damages the lungs and causes an inflammatory response, which puts two strains on the cardiovascular system. Infection in the lungs lowers the level of oxygen in the blood and the inflammatory effects of the virus itself cause blood pressure to drop. In such cases, the heart has to beat faster and harder to supply oxygen to the larger organs.

According to the European Society of Cardiology, patients with heart conditions such as heart failure, chronic cardiomyopathy, modern forms of arrhythmic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and patients with congenital cyanotic heart disease are most at risk.

Severe Obesity –

There is a growing number of reports that have linked obesity to more severe Covid-19 infections and deaths. Obesity reduces cardiovascular reserves and weakens the immune system, which helps to progress to a critical stage of the disease.

The researchers found that in New York City, people under the age of 60 with code 19 were 1.8 times and 3.6 times more likely to have a BMI between 30 and 34 kg / m2 and people over 35 kg / m2. Likely to be a concern. Take care of people with a BMI of less than 30 kg / m2, respectively.

A new study published in Diabetes Care in 2020 concludes that patients with COVID-19 are two and a half times more likely to develop severe pneumonia if they are obese than if they are obese. Obesity causes chronic inflammation. Although obesity is a risk-free factor for susceptibility to infection, more research is needed.

Diabetes –

Diabetes COVID 19 infection is a risk factor for hospitalization and death. Patients with diabetes have altered immune responses to cytokine profile-related infections and immune responses, including T cell and macrophage activation. Poor glycemic control affects many aspects of the immune response to viral infections and possible bacterial secondary infections in the lungs. Poor glycemic control is a risk factor for COVID 19 infection and its negative consequences. Therefore, the importance of strict glycemic control in diabetics cannot be overlooked.

Chronic kidney disease

People with chronic kidney disease have an increased risk of infection. People with dialysis may have a weakened immune system, which makes it harder to fight infection. However, kidney patients need to continue their regular scheduled dialysis treatment and take the necessary precautions as recommended by their healthcare provider.

People with kidney transplants need to take anti-rejection drugs, also called immunosuppressive drugs, which keep the immune system low.

Liver disease –

All patients with liver disease are at risk of adverse effects of the virus. Also, some people have very weak liver conditions. These include people with immunodeficiency for a liver transplant or for autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and people with liver cancer who are active.


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